Poorly understood but very important, glycoproteins and glycolipids play an important role in cellular functions.
Metastasis of tumor cells
Tumor cells may use EMT/MET (epithelial-mesenchymal transition/mesenchymal-epithelial transition) to metastasize to other parts of the body. 2D medical illustration.
Certain cells use transporter proteins to pump out chemotherapeutic agents. This helps save cells, such as sensory neurons, from too much damage. Cancer cells can also use a similar mechanism. 2D medical illustration.
In order to study tumor angiogenesis, a small number of tumor cells is injected intradermally into mice. Their ability to induce new vasculature is measured. 2D medical illustration.
Cross section of vertebrae
The human spine is comprised of 33 individual bones that encase our spinal cord. The spine allows us to stand upright, walk, run, and perform an amazing variety of tasks. 2D scientific illustration.
Cancer immunotherapy is a hot topic. By using signaling pathways such as the PD1/PD-L1 pathway, tumor cells are able to "turn off" the cancer-fighting immune cells. By interfering with this pathway through use of small molecule inhibitors, researchers might be able to turn the immune system back on. 2D scientific illustration.
Diabetes has wide-ranging effects on the body, including the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is caused by damage to the blood vessels. Symptoms inlude blurriness and dark areas of vision. 2D medical illustration.
Cancer is able to overcome the body's natural immune system, which is designed to kill such cells. It does so by several mechanisms, including turning off cancer-fighting cells. 2D medical illustration.
Small hive beetle life cycle
Small hive beetles is a damaging pest to honey bee colonies.
The internal workings of a rapid covid-19 antibody test. 2D image created with Procreate.
Cancer often spreads to the bone, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. 2D medical illustration created in Procreat.
Immune modulation is being investigated as a means to control cancer progression. 2D medical illustration created in Procreate.
Osteoblasts, which build up bone, and osteoclasts, which degrade bone, are important players in the complex bone metastastic process. 2D medical illustration created in Procreate.